General

The coding is part of the qualitative content analysis. In qualitative content analysis, rules are formulated in advance (process models, analysis units, content analysis rules), according to which the text analysis is performed. The rules are revised during the analysis, but remain constant for the final passage of material. Text analysis is performed using categories. Categories represent the evaluation aspects and are similar to the codes in the Grounded Theory methodology, but they must be precisely defined in the content analysis. In Qualitative Content Analysis, the data material can be evaluated inductively, deductively or inductively-deductively. Inductive means that the categories used are derived from the material. In deductive coding, on the other hand, the categories are derived from one or more theories. With the mixed form of inductive-deductive coding, both forms of categories are used. [1] 

Goal

The aim of this method is to qualitatively analyze the content of text material in order to draw conclusions and findings. [1]

Execution

Figure 1 shows the process of a qualitative content analysis. [1]

Process Coding
Figure 1: Procedure for qualitative content analysis, Based on [1]

 

Table 1 shows examples of inductive categories from research diaries. [2]

Category

Increased automation

New business models

Practises for problem detection and solving

Enhanced communication

Developing an organisation for digitalisation

Table 1: Category building, Based on [2]

 

Table 2 shows examples of deductive categories from a digitization study. [2]

Category name

Coding rules

Reference of the theory

Exploitative

·         Identifying existing customers

·         Assessing and understanding customer needs and expectations

·         Increasing process control and reliability

·         Intra-functional problem-solving

·         Training on existing skills

(March1991;Zhang, Linderman, and Schroeder2012)

Explorative

·         Identifying new customers and new customer needs

·         Involving customers in product development

·         Exploring new products and processes

·         Dynamic changes to the organisation

·         Cross-functional problem-solving

·         Training on multiple and new skills

(March1991;Zhang, Linderman, and Schroeder2012)

Process level

·         Refers to digital tools in solving tasks and activities

(Parviainen et al.2017)

Organisation level

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives facilitating the improvement of existing customer offerings

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives facilitating the development of new customer offering

(Parviainen et al.2017)

Business domain level

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives facilitating the improvement of existing business models and value chains

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives facilitating the development of new business models and value chains

(Parviainen et al.2017)

Mandate (follower/leader)

·         Refers to QM as leading digitalization initiatives

·         Refers to QM as following digitalization initiatives

 

Provider sphere

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives developing and facilitating value in internal processes

(Grönroos2008,2011)

Interaction sphere

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives developing and facilitating value together with customers

(Grönroos2008,2011)

Customer sphere

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives in gathering information on customer behaviour, needs, and wishes

·         Refers to digitalisation initiatives in understanding customer value-in-us

(Grönroos2008,2011)

 


 Core Literature

  • [1] Mayring, P. (2010). Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. In Handbuch qualitative Forschung in der Psychologie (pp. 601-613). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
  • [2] Elg, M., Birch-Jensen, A., Gremyr, I., Martin, J., & Melin, U. (2020). Digitalisation and quality management: problems and prospects. Production Planning & Control, 1-14.
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